Retinal Vein Occlusions

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Retinal veins may occlude in patients with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease or glaucosis. This occlusion may occur in only one branch of the vein as it also may occur in the form of retinal root vein occlusion in the exit of optical nerve.

Vascular pressure rises behind the occlusion. Bleeding and edema occur in the retina. Blurred and hazy vision occurs, coinciding with the area of bleeding and edema.

In fundus fluorescent angiography, which is to be performed after the hemorrhages are partially removed, the presence of ischemia, that is, the nutritional status of the retina, is investigated. In the absence of ischemia, the results are usually better.
If there is ischemia in retinal vein root occlusion, new blood vessels are formed within 3 months, depending on these, intraocular bleeding and a painful and difficult-to-treat glaucoma called 100-day glaucoma (neovascular glaucoma) may develop.

Intraocular injection treatments, micropulse or grid/panretinal thermal laser treatments are applied if necessary to prevent new vessel formations and/or macular edema.
If ischemic damage to the retina is extensive, magnovision therapy and extraocular growth factor injection support may be required.
The underlying cause should be investigated; hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma must be kept under control.

Retinal artery (arterial) occlusion

Occlusion develops in the artery that feeds the retina, as a result of the formation of fatty plaques or a clot from the carotid.
If the occlusion occurs in the part of the optic nerve, retinal main artery occlusion occurs. Painless and sudden loss of vision occurs.
Its treatment is very urgent. If the clot cannot be dissolved or moved further within 4 hours, permanent vision loss develops.
In the treatment, intraocular pressure is lowered and subcutaneous low dose heparin is started. Vasodilators are administered. If possible, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is started immediately. Hyperbaric oxygen both provides dilation of retinal vessels and meets the oxygen requirement of the retina.
Magnovision therapy to be applied as soon as possible and extraoccular growth factor injection support contributes to the repair of retinal damage.

If the arterial occlusion occurs in only one branch, retinal ischemia, that is, the damage, develops only in the retinal region supplied by that branch.