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Behind the colored part of the eye iris, there is the lens of the eye.
The lens is glass-like transparent and it allows the rays from objects to focus on the sensitive point of the retina called the macula.
It is called cataract when the lens loses its transparency over time and becomes obscure.

Lens with cataract seen through the clear lens pupilla

Cataract clear lens

Causes of cataract:

  • Cataract most commonly occurs after the age of 60, due to tissue aging.
  • It can be seen at earlier ages in conditions such as diabetes, working in hot environments, trauma, long-term use of cortisone.
  • Sometimes it can occur at birth or in early childhood. Congenital cataracts may develop due to genetics or some infections that the mother had during her pregnancy and some drugs used.

Patients with cataracts complain of veiled-foggy vision, seeing as if looking from behind a waterfall, double vision with one eye, glare in the light, dispersion of lights at night, and complete closure of vision.

Treatment of cataract:
The only treatment for cataract is surgery. The clouded intraocular lens is cleaned by liquefying with the phacoemulsification process.
The natural lens has a refractive optical property of +22 on average. Objects can only be focused in the macula with this optical refraction. After the cataract lens is cleaned, an artificial and transparent intraocular lens is placed into the eye to provide this refraction. If the artificial lens is not placed, the patient cannot focus the image and sees blurred.

Cataract surgeries are surgeries that are performed under a microscope and require advanced technology.
Artificial intraocular lenses can be unifocal (far or near) or multifocal for far and near. However, single-focal lenses should be preferred in patients with retinal diseases along with cataracts. Because the contrast sensitivity of multifocal lenses is low. It also makes it difficult for the retina to appear clear and to be treated.

In patients with macular degeneration or macular damage, vision can be improved by placing miniature telescopic lenses in the eye during cataract surgery.

Cataract surgery is an operation that is mostly performed under local anesthesia.

Cataract surgeries can also be performed in the same session with vitrectomy surgery for the treatment of retinal diseases. In this type of surgeries, general anesthesia is preferred since the operation will take a long time.